Diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic condition wherein the body experiences high levels of blood sugar for a prolonged period. The increasing prevalence of diabetes and related conditions, changing patient needs, and advanced technology led to a change in the approach to diabetes care and management
Diabetes is commonly known as 'having sugar'. Diabetes Mellitus is a cluster of metabolic disorders which are defined as a condition characterized by a set of clinical criteria like high blood sugar (glucose) levels, insulin resistance,, dyslipidaemia (skewed lipid levels), hypertension and obesity, which result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both.
Diabetes progresses from a state of near normal glucose tolerance to impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes as a continuum in complete glucose dysregulation. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas acts as the key for assimilating the glucose in the blood cells and also helps to control the blood sugar levels of the body. When the blood glucose rises (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. In patients with diabetes, the absence or insufﬁcient or even inadequate production or impaired function of insulin causes high blood sugar levels or hyperglycemia.
Although diabetes is a chronic medical condition and can be controlled well, it lasts a lifetime.Diabetes is emerging as one of the most serious healthcare problems in India. If not diagnosed early and managed properly, diabetes can cause serious damage to vital organs of the body such as the heart, kidney, brain, eyes, nerves, feet etc.
The type 1 diabetes occurs most often in children and adolescents, but adults may also have it. In Type 1 diabetes the pancreas produce very little or no insulin at all. Insulin injection has to be taken regularly throughout life. It is caused due to autoimmune problems, viral infections or genetic reasons.
The type 2 Diabetes is the more common form of diabetes that occurs in adults. In this condition, either the pancreas is unable to make enough insulin or the cells of the body become unresponsive to insulin. As a result, the blood glucose levels become high. This condition is on the rise nowadays due to obesity problems. It is reported to be found commonly in Asian Americans, African Americans, North Americans, Latinos, Pacific islanders and native Hawaiians.